Ending Of Requiem For A Dream

2000 Usa psychological drama film by Darren Aronofsky

Requiem for a Dream

Theatrical release poster

Directed by Darren Aronofsky
Screenplay by
  • Hubert Selby Jr.
  • Darren Aronofsky
Based on Requiem for a Dream

by Hubert Selby Jr.
Produced by
  • Eric Watson
  • Palmer West
Starring
  • Ellen Burstyn
  • Jared Leto
  • Jennifer Connelly
  • Marlon Wayans
  • Christopher McDonald
Cinematography Matthew Libatique
Edited by Jay Rabinowitz
Music by Clint Mansell

Production
companies

  • Thou Words
  • Protozoa Pictures
Distributed past
  • Artisan Entertainment (United States)
  • Momentum Pictures (UK) Summit Amusement (International)[i]

Release dates

  • May xiv, 2000 (2000-05-xiv)
    (Cannes)
  • October vi, 2000 (2000-10-06)
    (United States)

Running time

102 minutes[2]
Country U.s.a.
Language English
Upkeep $iv.five 1000000[three]
Box office $seven.4 meg[4]


Requiem for a Dream

is a 2000 American psychological drama film directed by Darren Aronofsky and starring Ellen Burstyn, Jared Leto, Jennifer Connelly, Christopher McDonald and Marlon Wayans. Information technology is based on the 1978 novel of the same name by Hubert Selby Jr., with whom Aronofsky wrote the screenplay. The flick depicts four characters affected past drug habit and how it alters their concrete and emotional states. Their addictions crusade them to get imprisoned in a globe of delusion and desperation. As the film progresses, each character deteriorates, and their reality is overtaken past delusion, resulting in a ending.

Selby’s novel was optioned past Aronofsky and producer Eric Watson. Selby had always intended to arrange the novel into a film, every bit he had written a script years prior to Aronofsky approaching him. Aronofsky was enthusiastic about the story and developed the script with Selby, despite initial struggles to obtain funding for the picture show’s production. He and the cast speak of the film being about addictions in general, and not just drugs, with a theme of loneliness and avoidance of reality in different ways.

The film premiered at the 2000 Cannes Movie Festival, selected equally an out-of-competition entry, followed by the U.s. theatrical release on October 6, 2000, past Artisan Entertainment. It received a positive response from critics despite moderate success at the box function. The motion picture’southward visual style, management, screenplay, editing, musical score, bandage, and themes were all praised, with Burstyn receiving an University Award nomination for All-time Actress. The soundtrack was composed past Clint Mansell.

Plot

[edit]

Sara Goldfarb, a widow who lives solitary in a Brighton Beach apartment, spends her fourth dimension watching television set. Her son Harry is a heroin aficionado, along with his friend Tyrone and girlfriend Marion. The three deal heroin in a bid to realize their dreams; Harry and Marion plan to open a clothing store for Marion’s designs, while Tyrone seeks an escape from the ghetto and the approval of his mother. When Sara receives a telephone call that she has been invited to her favorite game evidence, she begins a restrictive crash diet in an attempt to fit into a ruby dress that she wore at Harry’s graduation.

At the advice of her friend Rae, Sara visits a md who prescribes her amphetamines to control her appetite. She begins losing weight quickly and is excited by how much energy she has. When Harry recognizes the signs of her drug abuse and implores her to stop taking the amphetamines, Sara insists that the hazard to appear on television and the increased admiration from her friends Ada and Rae are her remaining reasons to live. As time passes Sara becomes frantic waiting for the invitation and increases her dosage, which causes her to develop amphetamine psychosis.

Tyrone is caught in a shootout between drug traffickers and the Sicilian Mafia and is arrested despite his innocence. Harry has to utilize almost of their saved money to post bail. As a event of the gang warfare, the local supply of heroin becomes restricted, and they are unable to find whatever to buy. Somewhen, Tyrone hears of a large shipment coming to New York from Florida, but the price has doubled and the minimum buy risk is high. Harry encourages Marion to engage in prostitution with her psychiatrist, Arnold, for money. This request, along with their mounting withdrawal symptoms, strains their human relationship.

Sara’s increased dosage of amphetamines distorts her sense of reality, and she begins to hallucinate that she is mocked by the host and crowd from the television bear witness, and attacked by her refrigerator. Sara flees her apartment and goes to the casting agency office in Manhattan to confirm when she will be on boob tube. Sara’s disturbed land causes her to be admitted to a psychiatric ward, where she fails to respond to various medications. She undergoes electroconvulsive therapy instead. Subsequently the heroin shipment descends into a melee, Harry and Tyrone travel to Miami to buy heroin directly from the wholesaler. Notwithstanding, Harry’due south arm has become gangrenous from heroin use, so the two stop at a hospital. The doc realizes that Harry is a drug aficionado and calls the constabulary, resulting in Harry and Tyrone being arrested.

Back in New York, a desperate Marion prostitutes herself to a pimp, Big Tim. She is forced to perform demeaning sexual acts for a crowd of paying customers. Sara’s handling leaves her in a dissociated catatonic about-vegetative state, to the horror of her friends Ada and Rae, who weep and try to condolement each other on a park bench outside the hospital. Harry’s arm is amputated above the elbow, and he breaks down in tears afterwards he realizes Marion volition not visit him. Tyrone is subjected to grueling labor and racial abuse from the prison guards, all while experiencing a painful heroin withdrawal. Marion returns habitation and lies on her sofa, clutching her score of heroin and surrounded by her crumpled and discarded clothing designs. Each of the iv characters curls into a fetal position. Sara imagines herself as the beautiful game show winner, with Harry—married and successful—arriving as a invitee. Sara and Harry lovingly embrace.

Cast

[edit]

  • Ellen Burstyn as Sara Goldfarb
  • Jared Leto equally Harry Goldfarb
  • Jennifer Connelly equally Marion Silver
  • Marlon Wayans as Tyrone C. Love
  • Christopher McDonald every bit Tappy Tibbons
  • Mark Margolis every bit Mr. Rabinowitz
  • Louise Lasser every bit Ada
  • Marcia Jean Kurtz as Rae
  • Sean Gullette every bit Arnold, Marion’s psychiatrist
  • Keith David as Big Tim, Marion’south pimp
  • Dylan Baker as Southern Doctor
  • Ajay Naidu equally Mailman
  • Denise Dowse every bit Tyrone’s Mother
  • Ben Shenkman as Dr. Spencer
  • Hubert Selby, Jr. every bit Laughing Guard
  • Darren Aronofsky (uncredited) every bit Visitor[v]

Production

[edit]

Development

[edit]

Requiem for a Dream
is non about heroin or about drugs… The Harry-Tyrone-Marion story is a very traditional heroin story. Simply putting it side by side with the Sara story, we of a sudden say, ‘Oh, my God, what is a drug?’ The idea that the same inner monologue goes through a person’s caput when they’re trying to quit drugs, as with cigarettes, every bit when they’re trying to non eat food and so they can lose 20 pounds, was actually fascinating to me. I thought information technology was an thought that we hadn’t seen on film and I wanted to bring it up on the screen.[six]

—Aronofsky on
Requiem for a Dream

The novel
Requiem for a Dream
by Hubert Selby Jr. was published in 1978.[7]
Aronofsky had been a fan of Selby’southward piece of work during his schoolhouse years.[viii]
In a 2001 interview with the BBC, Aronofsky described Selby’south work, maxim “Anyone that reads Selby’due south work can encounter how intense his world is. He writes the most discordant, aroused words that tickle the air with some sugariness music around it. It’due south an unbelievable experience to read his books. I knew that one time I fabricated a larger pic it would exist very difficult to practice a project like this. I live my life not wanting to have any regrets, and I knew that Selby was cool, that he’s a badass”.[9]

Eric Watson, producer and co-writer of
Pi
(1998), convinced Aronofsky to adapt the novel into a film. Selby was open to the idea and granted permission. Aronofsky and Watson optioned the picture show rights for $ane,000, which was considered a big sum for them at the fourth dimension.[ten]
Aronofsky was still struggling financially afterward
Pi, and financiers were too unconvinced on his thought of
Requiem for a Dream.[8]
[11]
A screenplay had been written by Selby years prior, which was 80% similar to Aronofsky’southward. The pair compared their works, but Aronofsky wanted to cast younger characters to enhance the bear on of drugs. Notwithstanding, the producers were against hiring a younger bandage as they felt the moving picture would be too unsettling for audiences; the director reluctantly agreed.[8]

Casting

[edit]

A number of actresses were considered for the role of Sara Goldfarb, merely many of them rejected the role. Faye Dunaway turned information technology down.[12]
Ellen Burstyn as well initially rejected the part due to the depressing content, but her manager convinced her to see Aronofsky’s previous work; she was impressed and agreed to be cast in the lead role.[eight]
[13]
[14]
Giovanni Ribisi, Neve Campbell and Dave Chappelle were all considered for the part of Harry Goldfarb, Marion Silvery and Tyrone C. Honey, respectively. All three declined.[8]
The producers settled with Jared Leto, who was keen on the challenge, followed by Jennifer Connelly—”When I read the script, information technology was really something I wanted to do. I idea the script was … brilliant. It was so creative … I idea it was really brave. It was talking about really important issues”, she said.[15]
Marlon Wayans read the novel iii times and auditioned five times for the role of Tyrone earlier he was offered the part, eager to work with the managing director.[xvi]

In preparation for filming, Leto spent time living on the streets of New York, surrounded by people who were in the same state of affairs as his character.[17]
[18]
He also starved himself for months, losing 28 pounds (13 kg) to play his heroin-fond character realistically.[19]
Aronofsky requested that Leto and Wayans refrain from having sexual practice and consuming carbohydrate so that their cravings would announced genuine on-screen.[8]
Burstyn also spent time in Brooklyn, learning about the lives of particular women, and how narrow it is. “Their life is virtually getting enough money to put nutrient on the table to feed their children, and that’south it”, she said.[20]
Connelly prepared for the role by renting an flat in the building where the character lived. Connelly isolated herself, painted, listened to music that she thought Marion would, designed clothes, and used the time to reflect almost addictions and their origin. She likewise talked to addicts and attended Narcotics Anonymous meetings with a recovering friend.[21]

Filming

[edit]

Filming lasted xl days,[xiii]
on location in and around Coney Isle, including the boardwalk, entertainment parks and Brighton Beach.[22]
[23]
To capture Sara Goldfarb’due south weight loss throughout the film, Burstyn wore 2 fat suits; one simulated an boosted 40 pounds (eighteen kg) in weight and one 20 pounds (ix.1 kg). Burstyn besides dieted during a two-calendar week suspension in the filming schedule, assuasive her to lose x pounds (4.five kg).[8]
[xx]
Makeup artists designed nine wigs and 4 necks for her, with some of the prosthetic pieces taking up to four hours to apply.[ten]
Connelly’south wardrobe consisted of pieces that she had fabricated during her time preparing for the role.[8]

During a grocery store scene, real drug addicts were brought in as extras. Aronofsky has recalled that some were injecting themselves during filming.[10]
Ane bathtub scene was inspired by Satoshi Kon’s 1997 anime flick
Perfect Blueish.[24]
Post-production likewise included approximately 150 special effects, created past Amoeba Proteus, a digital effects company formed by Aronofksky and his friends.[x]
[11]
After filming was completed, Burstyn said, “I don’t think I’ve ever been this challenged in a role—it was harder than
The Exorcist.
[25]
Connelly also spoke of how “information technology was hard, really difficult to go through, emotionally. It was draining, deplorable, and uncomfortable”.[15]

Editing

[edit]

As with Aronofsky’s previous film,
Pi, montages of extremely short shots were used throughout the picture; such techniques are sometimes referred to equally hip hop montage[26]
but are likewise employed in traditional movie theatre, such every bit
Human being with a Movie Camera. While an boilerplate 100-minute picture has 600 to 700 cuts,
Requiem for a Dream
features more than two,000. Split-screen is used extensively, along with extremely tight shut-ups.[26]
[27]
Long tracking shots, including shots where the photographic camera is strapped to an player and facing them, known as Snorricam, and time-lapse photography are also prominent stylistic devices.[28]

Aronofsky alternates between extreme close-ups and extreme distance from the action, with sharp cuts betwixt reality and characters’ fantasies.[27]
The camerawork forces the viewer to explore the characters’ states of listen, hallucinations, visual distortions, and inaccurate sense of time.[29]
The average length of scenes also shortens as the motion-picture show progresses, from around 90 seconds to 2 minutes in the beginning, until the climactic scenes, which are cut very rapidly accompanied by incidental music. Later the climax, there is a curt period of silence and serenity. Pixelation and a fish-center lens are also techniques used to assistance reinforce the result of drugs and the viewer’southward distance from the character.[27]

Reception

[edit]

Box office

[edit]

Requiem for a Dream
premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival on May 14, 2000,[30]
and the 2000 Toronto International Flick Festival on September 13[31]
before a broad release a calendar month later. In the U.s., the film opened on Oct 6, 2000, and grossed a total of $three,635,482, averaging $64,770 per theater. In other territories, the moving picture earned $three,754,626, bringing a worldwide total of $7,390,108.[iv]

Rating

[edit]

In the United States, the flick was originally rated NC-17 by the Move Film Association of America, but Aronofsky appealed the rating, claiming that cut any portion of the film would dilute its message. The entreatment was denied, and Artisan Entertainment decided to release the film unrated.[32]
An R-rated version was released on video, with the sexual practice scene edited, but the rest of the moving picture identical to the unrated version.

In the Uk, the motion-picture show is rated 18 past the British Board of Pic Nomenclature.[33]

Critical response

[edit]

Burstyn (left) received critical acclamation for her performance as Sara Goldfarb.[34]
[35]
Leto (correct) portrays her son, Harry Goldfarb.

On Rotten Tomatoes
Requiem for a Dream
has an approval rating of 79% based on 138 reviews, with an average score of 7.40/10. The critical consensus states, “Though the movie may be as well intense for some to stomach, the wonderful performances and the bleak imagery are difficult to forget.”[36]
On Metacritic the pic has a weighted average score of 68 out of 100 based on 32 critics, indicating “generally favorable reviews.”[37]

Picture critic James Berardinelli considered
Requiem for a Dream
the 2d-best moving-picture show of the decade, behind
The Lord of the Rings
film trilogy.[38]
Roger Ebert gave the moving-picture show 3½ out of 4 stars, stating, “What is fascinating about
Requiem for a Dream
… is how well [Aronofsky] portrays the mental states of his addicts. When they employ, a window opens briefly into a world where everything is right. Then it slides close, and life reduces itself to a search for the coin and drugs to open up it again”.[39]
Elvis Mitchell, writing for
The New York Times, gave the film a positive review, stating, “Later on the young director’s astounding debut with the barely budgeted
Pi,
which was like watching a middleweight boxer win a fight purely on reflexes, he comes back with a picture that shows maturation”.[40]

Peter Bradshaw of
The Guardian, lauded the film as an “agonising and unflinchingly grim portrait of drug abuse” and “a formally pleasing piece of piece of work—if pleasing can perchance be the right discussion”.[41]
Peter Travers of
Rolling Rock
wrote that “no one interested in the power and magic of movies should miss information technology”.[42]
Owen Gleiberman of
Amusement Weekly, who gave the work an “A” form, argued that information technology “may be the first movie to fully capture the way drugs dislocate us from ourselves” and said, “The movie, a full-throttle mind-bough, is hypnotically harrowing and intense, a visual and spiritual plunge into the seduction and terror of drug addiction”.[43]
Scott Restriction of IGN gave the film a 9.0 out of 10 and argued, “The reason it works and so well as a motion picture nearly addiction is that, in every frame, the flick itself is addictive. It’s absolutely relentless, from Aronofsky’s bravura cinematic techniques (separate screens, complex cross-cut schemes, hallucinatory visuals) to Clint Mansell’s driving, hypnotic score (performed by the Kronos Quartet), the pic compels you to sentry information technology”.[44]

All the same, some critics had a less positive response. Dessen Howe of
The Washington Post
opined that the characters are “mostly relegated to human being mannequins in Aronofsky’s visual schemes”, simply praised Burstyn’s performance.[34]
David Sterritt of the
Christian Science Monitor
wrote, “the filmmaking gets fond to its own flashy cynicism … the picture sometimes seems as dazed and confused every bit the situations it wants to criticize”.[45]
William Arnold, writing for
Seattle Postal service-Intelligencer, stated, “Aronofsky hurls the full grammar of the cinema at united states similar a film student on an adrenaline blitz: slow-motion, fast-forward, jump cuts, surreal fantasy sequences, endless glaring close-ups of dilating pupils, bizarre hand-held tracking shots through the hateful streets”. Arnold compliments the filmmaker’s style just thought the editing was “brutalizing and counterproductive”.[46]

Some critics characterize
Requiem for a Dream
in the genre of “drug movies”, along with films such as
The Basketball Diaries,
Trainspotting,
Spun, and
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas.[26]
[47]

Accolades

[edit]

  • In 2007,
    Requiem for a Dream
    was listed on the election for the American Film Institute’s list of AFI’due south 100 Years…100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition).[74]
  • In a 2016 international critics’ poll conducted by the BBC,
    Requiem for a Dream
    was tied with
    Toni Erdmann
    (2016) and
    Carlos
    (2010) at 100th place in a listing of the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000.[75]
  • The film was listed every bit the 29th best-edited motion picture of all time in a 2012 survey by members of the Motility Pic Editors Guild.[76]

Soundtrack

[edit]

The soundtrack was composed by Clint Mansell. The string quartet arrangements were written by Pulitzer Prize-winning composer David Lang, and was performed by the Kronos Quartet.[77]
The soundtrack was re-released with the anthology
Requiem for a Dream: Remixed, which contains remixes of the music by various artists including Paul Oakenfold, Josh Flash, Jagz Kooner, and Delerium.[78]
The track “Lux Aeterna” is an orchestral composition past Mansell, the leitmotif of
Requiem for a Dream, and the penultimate piece in the film’s soundtrack. The popularity of this piece led to its employ in popular culture exterior the film, in flick and teaser trailers, and with multiple remixes and remakes by other producers.[79]
[fourscore]

Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    Tied with Maggie Cheung for
    In the Mood for Love.

  2. ^

    Tied with
    The Boondocks Is Tranquillity.

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External links

[edit]

  • Requiem for a Dream
    at IMDb
  • Requiem for a Dream
    at AllMovie
  • Requiem for a Dream
    at Box Office Mojo
  • Requiem for a Dream
    at Rotten Tomatoes
  • Requiem for a Dream
    at Metacritic
    Edit this at Wikidata



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Requiem_for_a_Dream