How To Slow Down Google Translate

Multilingual neural machine translation service

Google Translate
Screenshot of Google Translate.png

Google Translate website homepage

Blazon of site

Neural automobile translation
Available in 133 languages; run across below
Owner Google
URL interpret.google.com
Commercial Aye
Registration Optional
Users Over 500 million people daily
Launched Apr 28, 2006; xvi years agone
 (2006-04-28)
(every bit statistical automobile translation)[one]

November 15, 2016; 6 years ago
 (2016-11-fifteen)
(every bit neural motorcar translation)[2]
Current status Active

Google Translate
is a multilingual neural auto translation service developed by Google to translate text, documents and websites from 1 language into another. It offers a website interface, a mobile app for Android and iOS, and an API that helps developers build browser extensions and software applications.[iii]
As of November 2022, Google Translate supports 133 languages at diverse levels,[4]
and as of Apr 2016[update], claimed over 500 million total users, with more than 100 billion words translated daily,[five]
after the company stated in May 2013 that it served over 200 million people daily.[half dozen]

Launched in April 2006 as a statistical machine translation service, it used United Nations and European Parliament documents and transcripts to assemble linguistic data. Rather than translating languages directly, it offset translates text to English then pivots to the target linguistic communication in most of the language combinations information technology posits in its grid,[7]
with a few exceptions including Catalan-Spanish.[viii]
During a translation, it looks for patterns in millions of documents to help decide which words to choose and how to conform them in the target language. Its accuracy, which has been criticized on several occasions,[nine]
has been measured to vary greatly beyond languages.[10]
In Nov 2016, Google announced that Google Translate would switch to a neural machine translation engine – Google Neural Machine Translation (GNMT) – which translates “whole sentences at a fourth dimension, rather than just piece by piece. It uses this broader context to aid it figure out the most relevant translation, which information technology then rearranges and adjusts to exist more similar a human speaking with proper grammar”.[2]

History

Google Translate is a web-based gratuitous-to-user translation service adult by Google in April 2006.[11]
It translates multiple forms of texts and media such every bit words, phrases and webpages.

Originally, Google Translate was released equally a statistical machine translation service.[eleven]
The input text had to be translated into English first before beingness translated into the selected language.[11]
Since SMT uses predictive algorithms to translate text, it had poor grammatical accuracy. Despite this, Google initially did non rent experts to resolve this limitation due to the ever-evolving nature of linguistic communication.[11]

In January 2010, Google introduced an Android app and iOS version in February 2011 to serve as a portable personal interpreter.[11]
As of February 2010, it was integrated into browsers such every bit Chrome and was able to pronounce the translated text, automatically recognize words in a motion picture and spot unfamiliar text and languages.[eleven]

In May 2014, Google acquired Word Lens to meliorate the quality of visual and voice translation.[12]
It is able to scan text or a motion picture using the device and accept it translated instantly. Moreover, the system automatically identifies foreign languages and translates speech communication without requiring individuals to tap the microphone push button whenever spoken language translation is needed.[12]

In November 2016, Google transitioned its translating method to a arrangement called neural automobile translation.[13]
It uses deep learning techniques to translate whole sentences at a time, which has been measured to be more accurate between English and French, High german, Spanish, and Chinese.[14]
No measurement results have been provided by Google researchers for GNMT from English to other languages, other languages to English, or between language pairs that exercise not include English. Equally of 2018, it translates more 100 billion words a day.[thirteen]

In 2017, Google Translate was used during a courtroom hearing when courtroom officials at Teesside Magistrates’ Court failed to book an interpreter for the Chinese accused.[15]

At the end of September 2022, Google Translate was discontinued in mainland Prc, which Google said was due to “depression usage”[16]
[17]
(see Cyberspace censorship in Red china).

Functions

Google Interpret tin translate multiple forms of text and media, which includes text, speech, and text within even so or moving images.[eighteen]
[xix]
Specifically, its functions include:

  • Written Words Translation:
    a office that translates written words or text to a foreign language.[xx]
  • Website Translation:
    a part that translates a whole webpage to selected languages.[21]
  • Document Translation:
    a function that translates a certificate uploaded by the users to selected languages. The documents should be in the form of: .md, .docx, .odf, .pdf, .ppt, .pptx, .ps, .rtf, .txt, .xls, .xlsx.[21]
  • Speech communication Translation:
    a part that instantly translates spoken language into the selected foreign language.[22]
  • Mobile App Translation:
    in 2018, Google introduced its new Google Translate feature called “Tap to Interpret”, which made instant translation accessible inside any app without exiting or switching it.[23]
  • Epitome Translation:
    a part that identifies text in a motion-picture show taken by the users and translates text on the screen instantly by images.[24]
  • Handwritten Translation:
    a role that translates language that are handwritten on the phone screen or drawn on a virtual keyboard without the support of a keyboard.[25]
  • Bilingual Chat Translation:
    a function that translates conversations in multiple languages.[26]
  • Transcription:
    a function that transcribes speech in unlike languages.[27]

For nearly of its features, Google Translate provides the pronunciation, dictionary, and listening to translation. Additionally, Google Translate has introduced its ain Interpret app, and then translation is bachelor with a mobile phone in offline mode.[xviii]
[19]

Features

Web interface

Google Translate produces approximations across languages of multiple forms of text and media, including text, spoken language, websites, or text on display in still or live video images.[18]
[19]
For some languages, Google Translate can synthesize voice communication from text,[20]
and in certain pairs it is possible to highlight specific corresponding words and phrases between the source and target text. Results are sometimes shown with dictional information below the translation box, but it is not a lexicon[28]
and has been shown to invent translations in all languages for words information technology does not recognize.[29]
If “Detect language” is selected, text in an unknown language can be automatically identified. In the web interface, users can suggest alternate translations, such as for technical terms, or correct mistakes. These suggestions may be included in future updates to the translation process. If a user enters a URL in the source text, Google Translate will produce a hyperlink to a automobile translation of the website.[21]
Users tin can save translation proposals in a “phrasebook” for afterward utilise, and a shareable URL is generated for each translation.[xxx]
[31]
For some languages, text tin can be entered via an on-screen keyboard, through handwriting recognition, or speech recognition.[25]
[22]
It is possible to enter searches in a source language that are first translated to a destination language allowing one to browse and interpret results from the selected destination language in the source language.

Texts written in the Arabic, Cyrillic, Devanagari and Greek scripts can be transliterated automatically from phonetic equivalents written in the Latin alphabet. The browser version of Google Translate provides the choice to show phonetic equivalents of text translated from Japanese to English language. The aforementioned choice is non bachelor on the paid API version.

Emphasis of English that the “text-to-oral communication” audio of Google Translate of each country uses:

 British (Received Pronunciation) (female)

 General American (female)

 Full general Australian (female)

 Indian (female)

 No Google interpret service

Many of the more popular languages have a “text-to-speech” sound function that is able to read back a text in that language, up to a few dozen words or so. In the case of pluricentric languages, the accent depends on the region: for English language, in the Americas, nearly of the Asia-Pacific and Southwest asia, the audio uses a female person General American emphasis, whereas in Europe, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Guyana and all other parts of the world, a female British (Received Pronunciation) accent is used, except for a special Full general Australian accent used in Australia, New Zealand and Norfolk Island, and an Indian English emphasis used in India; for Spanish, in the Americas, a Latin American emphasis is used, while in the other parts of the world, a Castilian accent is used; for Portuguese, a São Paulo accent is used around the world, except in Portugal, where their native accent is used instead; for French, a Quebec accent is used in Canada, while in the other parts of the earth, a standard European accent is used; for Bengali, a male Bangladeshi accent is used, except in Bharat, where a special female Indian Bengali accent is used instead. Some less widely spoken languages utilise the open-source eSpeak synthesizer for their speech; producing a robotic, awkward voice that may exist difficult to understand.

Browser integration

Google Translate is available in some web browsers every bit an optional downloadable extension that can run the translation engine, which allow correct-click command access to the translation service.[32]
[33]
[34]
In February 2010, Google Translate was integrated into the Google Chrome browser by default, for optional automated webpage translation.[35]
[36]
[37]

Mobile app

Google Interpret
Developer(s) Google
Initial release January i, 2010; 12 years ago
 (2010-01-01)
(for Android)
February 8, 2011; xi years ago
 (2011-02-08)
(for iOS)
Stable release(due south)
[±]
Android six.35.29.444893127.iv / Apr 28, 2022; 6 months ago
 (2022-04-28)
[38]
iOS 6.34.0 / April xix, 2022; 6 months agone
 (2022-04-19)
[39]
Platform
  • Android 6.0 and later on
  • iOS 12.4 and later
Size 31.58 MB (Android)

123.vii MB (iOS)
Bachelor in 133 languages; see below
Blazon Neural machine translation
Website interpret.google.com/thousand?hl=en

The Google Translate app for Android and iOS supports 133 languages and can propose translations for 37 languages via photo, 32 via vocalisation in “conversation fashion”, and 27 via live video imagery in “augmented reality style”.[forty]
[41]

The Android app was released in Jan 2010, and for iOS on February 8, 2011,[42]
later an HTML5 web awarding was released for iOS users in August 2008.[43]
The Android app is uniform with devices running at least Android ii.i, while the iOS app is compatible with iPod Touches, iPads, and iPhones updated to iOS vii.0+.[44]

A Jan 2011 Android version experimented with a “Conversation Style” that aims to allow users to communicate fluidly with a nearby person in some other language.[45]
Originally limited to English language and Spanish, the feature received support for 12 new languages, all the same in testing, the following October.[46]
[47]

The ‘Camera input’ functionality allows users to take a photograph of a certificate, signboard, etc. Google Translate recognises the text from the image using optical character recognition (OCR) technology and gives the translation. Camera input is not available for all languages.

In January 2015, the apps gained the ability to propose translations of physical signs in existent time using the device’s camera, as a outcome of Google’southward acquisition of the Word Lens app.[48]
[49]
[12]
The original January launch just supported 7 languages, only a July update added support for 20 new languages, with the release of a new implementation that utilizes convolutional neural networks, and also enhanced the speed and quality of Conversation Mode translations (augmented reality).[40]
[41]
[50]
[51]
[52]
The feature was subsequently renamed Instant Camera. The applied science underlying Instant Camera combines image processing and optical graphic symbol recognition, then attempts to produce cross-language equivalents using standard Google Translate estimations for the text as information technology is perceived.[53]

On May 11, 2016, Google introduced
Tap to Translate
for Google Translate for Android. Upon highlighting text in an app that is in a foreign language, Translate volition popular upward inside of the app and offering translations.[54]

API

On May 26, 2011, Google announced that the Google Translate API for software developers had been deprecated and would cease functioning.[55]
[56]
[57]
The Translate API page stated the reason every bit “substantial economic burden caused by extensive abuse” with an stop date set for December i, 2011.[58]
In response to public force per unit area, Google appear in June 2011 that the API would continue to be available as a paid service.[55]
[56]
[59]

Considering the API was used in numerous third-political party websites and apps, the original decision to deprecate it led some developers to criticize Google and question the viability of using Google APIs in their products.[60]
[61]

Google Assistant

Google Translate besides provides translations for Google Assistant and the devices that Google Assistant runs on such as Google Nest and Pixel Buds.

Supported languages

As of November 2022, the following 133 languages are supported by Google Translate.[iv]

  1. Afrikaans
  2. Albanian
  3. Amharic
  4. Standard arabic
  5. Armenian
  6. Assamese
  7. Aymara
  8. Azerbaijani
  9. Bambara
  10. Basque
  11. Byelorussian
  12. Bengali
  13. Bhojpuri
  14. Bosnian
  15. Bulgarian
  16. Burmese (Myanmar)
  17. Catalan
  18. Cebuano
  19. Chewa (Chichewa)
  20. Chinese (Simplified)
  21. Chinese (Traditional)
  22. Corsican
  23. Croation
  24. Czech
  25. Danish
  26. Dogri
  27. Dutch
  28. English
  29. Esperanto
  30. Estonian
  31. Ewe
  32. Finnish
  33. French
  34. Galician
  35. Georgian
  36. German
  37. Greek
  38. Guarani
  39. Gujarati
  40. Haitian Creole
  41. Hausa
  42. Hawaiian
  43. Hebrew
  44. Hindi
  45. Hmong
  46. Hungarian
  47. Icelandic
  48. Igbo
  49. Ilocano
  50. Indonesian
  51. Irish
  52. Italian
  53. Japanese
  54. Javanese
  55. Kannada
  56. Kazakh
  57. Khmer
  58. Kinyarwanda
  59. Konkani
  60. Korean
  61. Krio
  62. Kurdish (Kurmanji)
  63. Kurdish (Sorani)
  64. Kyrgyz
  65. Lao
  66. Latin
  67. Latvian
  68. Lingala
  69. Lithuanian
  70. Luganda
  71. Luxembourgish
  72. Macedonian
  73. Maithili
  74. Malagasy
  75. Malay
  76. Malayalam
  77. Maldivian (Dhivehi)
  78. Maltese
  79. Māori (Maori)
  80. Marathi
  81. Meitei (Manipuri, Meiteilon)
  82. Mizo
  83. Mongolian
  84. Nepali
  85. Northern Sotho (Sepedi)
  86. Norwegian
  87. Odia (Oriya)
  88. Oromo
  89. Pashto
  90. Persian
  91. Shine
  92. Portuguese
  93. Punjabi (Gurmukhi)
  94. Quechua
  95. Romanian
  96. Russian
  97. Samoan
  98. Sanskrit
  99. Scottish Gaelic (Scots Gaelic)
  100. Serbian
  101. Sesotho
  102. Shona
  103. Sindhi
  104. Sinhala
  105. Slovak
  106. Slovenian
  107. Somali
  108. Spanish
  109. Sundanese
  110. Swahili
  111. Swedish
  112. Tagalog (Filipino)
  113. Tajik
  114. Tamil
  115. Tatar
  116. Telugu
  117. Thai
  118. Tigrinya
  119. Tsonga
  120. Turkish
  121. Turkmen
  122. Twi
  123. Ukrainian
  124. Urdu
  125. Uyghur
  126. Uzbek
  127. Vietnamese
  128. Welsh
  129. Westward Frisian (Frisian)
  130. Xhosa
  131. Yiddish
  132. Yoruba
  133. Zulu

Stages

History

(by chronological order of introduction)

  1. 1st stage
    1. English to and from French
    2. English to and from German
    3. English to and from Spanish
  2. 2nd phase
    1. English to and from Portuguese
  3. 3rd stage
    1. English to and from Italian
  4. quaternary stage
    1. English to and from Chinese (Simplified)
    2. English to and from Japanese
    3. English to and from Korean
  5. fifth stage (launched April 28, 2006)[1]
    1. English language to and from Arabic
  6. 6th phase (launched December 16, 2006)
    1. English language to and from Russian
  7. 7th phase (launched February nine, 2007)
    1. English language to and from Chinese (Traditional)
    2. Chinese ((Simplified) to and from Traditional)
  8. 8th stage (all 25 language pairs use Google’south car translation system) (launched October 22, 2007)
    1. English to and from Dutch
    2. English to and from Greek
  9. ninth stage
    1. English to and from Hindi
  10. tenth stage (as of this stage, translation can be done between any two languages, using English every bit an intermediate footstep, if needed) (launched May eight, 2008)
    1. Bulgarian
    2. Croatian
    3. Czech
    4. Danish
    5. Finnish
    6. Norwegian (Bokmål)
    7. Shine
    8. Romanian
    9. Swedish
  11. 11th stage (launched September 25, 2008)
    1. Catalan
    2. Filipino (Tagalog)
    3. Hebrew
    4. Indonesian
    5. Latvian
    6. Lithuanian
    7. Serbian
    8. Slovak
    9. Slovenian
    10. Ukrainian
    11. Vietnamese
  12. 12th phase (launched January 30, 2009)
    1. Albanian
    2. Estonian
    3. Galician
    4. Hungarian
    5. Maltese
    6. Thai
    7. Turkish
  13. 13th stage (launched June 19, 2009)
    1. Persian
  14. 14th stage (launched August 24, 2009)
    1. Afrikaans
    2. Belorussian
    3. Icelandic
    4. Irish
    5. Macedonian
    6. Malay
    7. Swahili
    8. Welsh
    9. Yiddish
  15. 15th phase (launched November 19, 2009)
    1. The Beta stage is finished. Users can now choose to have the romanization written for Belorussian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Greek, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Thai and Ukrainian. For translations from Standard arabic, Hindi and Persian, the user can enter a Latin transliteration of the text and the text will exist transliterated to the native script for these languages as the user is typing. The text can now exist read by a text-to-spoken communication programme in English, French, German and Italian.
  16. 16th phase (launched January 30, 2010)
    1. Haitian Creole
  17. 17th stage (launched April 2010)
    1. Speech program launched in Hindi and Castilian.
  18. 18th stage (launched May 5, 2010)
    1. Voice communication program launched in Afrikaans, Albanian, Catalan, Chinese (Mandarin), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Latvian, Macedonian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Swahili, Swedish, Turkish, Vietnamese and Welsh (based on eSpeak)[62]
  19. 19th stage (launched May 13, 2010)[63]
    1. Armenian
    2. Azeri
    3. Basque
    4. Georgian
    5. Urdu
  20. 20th phase (launched June 2010)
    1. Provides romanization for Arabic.
  21. 21st phase (launched September 2010)
    1. Allows phonetic typing for Arabic, Greek, Hindi, Persian, Russian, Serbian and Urdu.
    2. Latin[64]
      [65]
  22. 22nd phase (launched December 2010)
    1. Romanization of Standard arabic removed.
    2. Spell check added.
    3. For some languages, Google replaced text-to-speech synthesizers from eSpeak’southward robot voice to native speaker’s nature voice technologies made by SVOX[66]
      (Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Norwegian, Smoothen, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish and Turkish), and besides the erstwhile versions of French, German, Italian and Spanish; Latin uses the same synthesizer as Italian.
    4. Speech plan launched in Standard arabic, Japanese and Korean.
  23. 23rd stage (launched January 2011)
    1. Choice of different translations for a word.
  24. 24th stage (launched June 2011)
    1. five new Indic languages (in alpha) and a transliterated input method:[67]
    2. Bengali
    3. Gujarati
    4. Kannada
    5. Tamil
    6. Telugu
  25. 25th phase (launched July 2011)
    1. Translation rating introduced.
  26. 26th stage (launched Jan 2012)
    1. Dutch male person vocalism synthesizer replaced with female.
    2. Elena past SVOX replaced the Slovak eSpeak voice.
    3. Transliteration of Yiddish added.
  27. 27th stage (launched February 2012)
    1. Speech program launched in Thai.
    2. Esperanto[68]
  28. 28th stage (launched September 2012)
    1. Lao
  29. 29th stage (launched October 2012)
    1. Transliteration of Lao added. (alpha status)[69]
      [seventy]
  30. 30th stage (launched October 2012)
    1. New speech program launched in English.
  31. 31st stage (launched November 2012)
    1. New speech program in French, German language, Italian, Latin and Castilian.
  32. 32nd stage (launched March 2013)
    1. Phrasebook added.
  33. 33rd stage (launched Apr 2013)
    1. Khmer[71]
  34. 34th stage (launched May 2013)
    1. Bosnian
    2. Cebuano[72]
    3. Hmong
    4. Javanese
    5. Marathi
  35. 35th stage (launched May 2013)
    1. sixteen boosted languages tin be used with camera-input: Bulgarian, Catalan, Croatian, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Indonesian, Icelandic, Latvian, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian and Swedish.
  36. 36th stage (launched December 2013)
    1. Hausa
    2. Igbo
    3. Maori
    4. Mongolian
    5. Nepali
    6. Panjabi (Gurmukhi)
    7. Somali
    8. Yoruba
    9. Zulu
  37. 37th stage (launched June 2014)
    1. Definition of words added.
  38. 38th stage (launched December 2014)
    1. Burmese
    2. Chewa
    3. Kazakh
    4. Malagasy
    5. Malayalam
    6. Sinhala[73]
    7. Sotho
    8. Sundanese
    9. Tajik
    10. Uzbek
  39. 39th stage (launched October 2015)
    1. Transliteration of Arabic restored.
  40. 40th stage (launched November 2015)
    1. Aurebesh
  41. 41st stage (launched Feb 2016)
    1. Aurebesh removed.
    2. Speech plan launched in Bengali.[74]
      [75]
      [76]
      [77]
      [78]
    3. Amharic
    4. Corsican
    5. Hawaiian
    6. Kurdish (Kurmanji)
    7. Kyrgyz
    8. Luxembourgish
    9. Pashto
    10. Samoan
    11. Scottish Gaelic
    12. Shona
    13. Sindhi[79]
    14. West Frisian
    15. Xhosa
  42. 42nd stage (launched September 2016)
    1. Speech program launched in Ukrainian.
  43. 43rd stage (launched December 2016)
    1. Speech program launched in Khmer and Sinhala.
  44. 44th stage (launched June 2018)
    1. Speech program launched in Burmese, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali and Telugu.
  45. 45th stage (launched September 2019)
    1. Speech program launched in Gujarati, Kannada and Urdu.
  46. 46th stage (launched February 2020)[fourscore]
    1. Kinyarwanda
    2. Odia
    3. Tatar
    4. Turkmen
    5. Uyghur
  47. 47th phase (launched February 2021)
    1. Spoken language programme launched in Afrikaans, Bulgarian, Catalan, Icelandic, Latvian, and Serbian (inverse from eSpeak to a natural voice).
    2. New speech system (WaveNet) for several languages.
  48. 48th stage (launched Jan 2022)
    1. Speech program launched in Hebrew.
  49. 49th stage (launched May 2022)[81]
    1. Assamese
    2. Aymara
    3. Bambara
    4. Bhojpuri
    5. Dogri
    6. Ewe
    7. Guarani
    8. Ilocano
    9. Konkani
    10. Krio
    11. Kurdish (Sorani)
    12. Lingala
    13. Luganda
    14. Maithili
    15. Maldivian
    16. Meitei
    17. Mizo
    18. Sepedi
    19. Oromo
    20. Quechua
    21. Sanskrit
    22. Tigrinya
    23. Tsonga
    24. Twi
    25. eSpeak voice synthesizer removed from Armenian, Esperanto, Macedonian and Welsh.

Languages in evolution and beta version

The post-obit languages are not yet supported by Google Interpret, but are available in the Translate Customs. As of November 2022, there are 103 languages in development, of which 9 are in beta version.[82]

The languages in beta version are closer to their public release and have an exclusive extra pick to contribute that allows evaluating up to 4 translations of the beta version past translating an English text of up to 50 characters.

There is currently a petition for Google to add Cree to Google Translate, but as of November 2022, it is not one of the languages in development.[83]
[84]

  1. Acehnese
  2. Adyghe
  3. Afar

    BETA
  4. Aragonese
  5. Avar (Avaric)
  6. Bagheli
  7. Balochi (Baluchi)
  8. Bangala
  9. Baoulé
  10. Bashkir
  11. Berber (Tamazight)

    BETA
  12. Betawi
  13. Bodo

    BETA
  14. Breton
  15. Cantonese
  16. Chechen
  17. Cherokee
  18. Chhattisgarhi
  19. Chittagonian
  20. Chuwash
  21. Deccani
  22. Dholuo
  23. Dyula
  24. Dzongkha
  25. Edo
  26. Efik
  27. Esan
  28. Fon
  29. Fula (Fulah)

    BETA
  30. Gagauz
  31. Garhwali
  32. Greenlandic (Kalaallisut)
  33. Haryanvi
  34. Hiligaynon
  35. Inuktitut
  36. Isoko
  37. Kamba
  38. Kanuri
  39. Kapampangan (Pampanga)
  40. Karachay-Balkar
  41. Karakalpak (Kara-Kalpak)
  42. Kashmiri
  43. Kedah Malay
  44. Khakas
  45. Khandeshi (Ahirani)
  46. Khorasani Turkic
  47. Kikuyu
  48. Kokborok (Tripuri)
  49. Kumyk
  50. Kʼicheʼ
  51. Lakota
  52. Lhasa Tibetan (Tibetan)

    BETA
  53. Luba-Kasai (Tshiluba)
  54. Luba-Katanga
  55. Madurese
  56. Magahi
  57. Marwari
  58. Mazanderani
  59. Minangkabau
  60. Montenegrin
  61. Mooré (Mossi)
  62. Navajo
  63. Newar (Nepalbhasa)

    BETA
  64. Nigerian Pidgin
  65. Northern Sami
  66. Occitan
  67. Pattani Malay
  68. Qashqai
  69. Rajasthani
  70. Rangpuri (Kamtapuri)
  71. Rohingya
  72. Romansh
  73. Sadri
  74. Salar
  75. Samogitian
  76. Sango
  77. Santali

    BETA
  78. Saraiki

    BETA
  79. Serrano
  80. Shor
  81. Siberian Tatar
  82. Sicilian
  83. Southern Altai
  84. Southern Ndebele
  85. Surjapuri
  86. Swahili Congo
  87. Sylheti
  88. Tiv
  89. Toba Batak (Batak Toba)
  90. Tok Pisin
  91. Tonga (Zambia and Zimbabwe) (Chitonga)
  92. Tswana (Setswana)
  93. Tswa
  94. Tuvan (Tuvinian)
  95. Urhobo
  96. Urum
  97. Varhadi (Varhadi-Nagpuri)
  98. Venda (Tshivenda)
  99. Wolof
  100. Yakut
  101. Yucatec Maya (Yucateco)

    BETA
  102. Zazaki
  103. Zhuang

Translation methodology

In April 2006, Google Interpret launched with a statistical machine translation engine.[1]

Google Translate does non apply grammatical rules, since its algorithms are based on statistical or design analysis rather than traditional dominion-based analysis. The system’s original creator, Franz Josef Och, has criticized the effectiveness of dominion-based algorithms in favor of statistical approaches.[85]
[86]
Original versions of Google Translate were based on a method called statistical machine translation, and more specifically, on research past Och who won the DARPA contest for speed motorcar translation in 2003. Och was the caput of Google’south machine translation group until leaving to join Homo Longevity, Inc. in July 2014.[87]

Google Translate does not translate from one language to another (L1 → L2). Instead, it oftentimes translates kickoff to English and and so to the target language (L1 → EN → L2).[88]
[89]
[xc]
[7]
[91]
Still, because English language, like all man languages, is ambiguous and depends on context, this tin can crusade translation errors. For example, translating


vous


from French to Russian gives



vous

→ y’all →

ты



OR



Bы/вы


.[92]
If Google were using an unambiguous, artificial language as the intermediary, information technology would be



vous

→ you →

Bы/вы



OR



tu

→ thou →

ты


. Such a suffixing of words disambiguates their different meanings. Hence, publishing in English language, using unambiguous words, providing context, using expressions such as “you all” may or may not make a better ane-footstep translation depending on the target language.

The post-obit languages practise non have a direct Google translation to or from English. These languages are translated through the indicated intermediate language (which in most cases is closely related to the desired linguistic communication only more than widely spoken) in addition to through English:[
citation needed
]

  • Belarusan (be ↔ ru ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Catalan (ca ↔ es ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Galician (gl ↔ pt ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Haitian Creole (ht ↔ fr ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Korean (ko ↔ ja ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Slovak (sk ↔ cs ↔ en ↔ other);
  • Ukrainian (uk ↔ ru ↔ en ↔ other);[91]
  • Urdu (ur ↔ hi ↔ en ↔ other).

According to Och, a solid base of operations for developing a usable statistical automobile translation system for a new pair of languages from scratch would consist of a bilingual text corpus (or parallel collection) of more than 150-200 1000000 words, and two monolingual corpora each of more than than a billion words.[85]
Statistical models from these information are so used to translate between those languages.

To larn this huge amount of linguistic data, Google used Un and European Parliament documents and transcripts.[93]
[94]
The Un typically publishes documents in all six official Un languages, which has produced a very large six-linguistic communication corpus.

Google representatives have been involved with domestic conferences in Nihon where it has solicited bilingual data from researchers.[95]

When Google Translate generates a translation proposal, it looks for patterns in hundreds of millions of documents to assistance decide on the best translation. By detecting patterns in documents that have already been translated past human translators, Google Interpret makes informed guesses (AI) as to what an appropriate translation should be.[96]

Before October 2007, for languages other than Arabic, Chinese and Russian, Google Interpret was based on SYSTRAN, a software engine which is still used by several other online translation services such equally Babel Fish (now defunct). From Oct 2007, Google Translate used proprietary, in-house technology based on statistical auto translation instead,[97]
[98]
earlier transitioning to neural machine translation.

Google has crowdsourcing features for volunteers to exist a part of its “Translate Community”, intended to help better Google Interpret’southward accuracy.[99]
[100]
[101]
[102]
[103]
Volunteers can select up to 5 languages to help improve translation; users tin can verify translated phrases and translate phrases in their languages to and from English language, helping to improve the accuracy of translating more rare and complex phrases. In August 2016, a Google Crowdsource app was released for Android users, in which translation tasks are offered.[105]
[106]
There are three means to contribute. Showtime, Google will testify a phrase that 1 should type in the translated version.[101]
2d, Google will show a proposed translation for a user to agree, disagree, or skip.[101]
Third, users tin suggest translations for phrases where they think they can improve on Google’southward results. Tests in 44 languages show that the “suggest an edit” feature led to an improvement in a maximum of forty% of cases over four years.[107]

Statistical auto translation

Although Google deployed a new arrangement called neural machine translation for ameliorate quality translation, there are languages that still use the traditional translation method called statistical machine translation. It is a rule-based translation method that utilizes predictive algorithms to gauge ways to translate texts in strange languages. It aims to interpret whole phrases rather than single words then gather overlapping phrases for translation. Moreover, it likewise analyzes bilingual text corpora to generate statistical model that translates texts from one language to some other.[108]

Google Neural Motorcar Translation

In September 2016, a research team at Google announced the development of the Google Neural Motorcar Translation system (GNMT) to increase fluency and accuracy in Google Translate[2]
[109]
and in November announced that Google Translate would switch to GNMT.

Google Translate’s neural machine translation system uses a large cease-to-finish bogus neural network that attempts to perform deep learning,[2]
[110]
[111]
in item, long brusk-term retentivity networks.[112]
[113]
[14]
[114]
GNMT improves the quality of translation over SMT in some instances because it uses an example-based machine translation (EBMT) method in which the organization “learns from millions of examples.”[110]
According to Google researchers, information technology translates “whole sentences at a fourth dimension, rather than just piece by slice. Information technology uses this broader context to help it figure out the well-nigh relevant translation, which it and then rearranges and adjusts to be more similar a human speaking with proper grammar”.[2]
GNMT’due south “proposed compages” of “system learning” has been implemented on over a hundred languages supported by Google Translate.[110]
With the end-to-finish framework, Google states but does not demonstrate for most languages that “the organisation learns over time to create improve, more natural translations.”[2]
The GNMT network attempts interlingual machine translation, which encodes the “semantics of the sentence rather than just memorizing phrase-to-phrase translations”,[110]
[90]
and the system did not invent its own universal language, but uses “the commonality found in betwixt many languages”.[115]
GNMT was starting time enabled for eight languages: to and from English and Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Castilian and Turkish.[2]
[109]
In March 2017, it was enabled for Hindi, Russian and Vietnamese,[116]
followed by Bengali, Gujarati, Indonesian, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil and Telugu in April.[117]

Accuracy

Google Translate is not as reliable as man translation. When text is well-structured, written using formal language, with simple sentences, relating to formal topics for which training data is ample, it often produces conversions like to human translations betwixt English and a number of high-resource languages.[118]
[13]
Accuracy decreases for those languages when fewer of those conditions apply, for example when judgement length increases or the text uses familiar or literary language. For many other languages vis-à-vis English, it tin produce the gist of text in those formal circumstances.[119]
Human being evaluation from English to all 102 languages shows that the main thought of a text is conveyed more than 50% of the fourth dimension for 35 languages. For 67 languages, a minimally comprehensible effect is non achieved 50% of the fourth dimension or greater.[10]
A few studies accept evaluated Chinese,[
citation needed
]

French,[
commendation needed
]

German,[
commendation needed
]

and Spanish[
citation needed
]

to English, but no systematic man evaluation has been conducted from nearly Google Translate languages to English. Speculative language-to-language scores extrapolated from English-to-other measurements[10]
indicate that Google Translate will produce translation results that convey the gist of a text from one language to another more than half the fourth dimension in nigh 1% of language pairs, where neither language is English.[120]
Research conducted in 2011 showed that Google Interpret got a slightly higher score than the UCLA minimum score for the English Proficiency Examination.[121]
Due to its identical choice of words without considering the flexibility of choosing alternative words or expressions, it produces a relatively similar translation to human translation from the perspective of formality, referential cohesion, and conceptual cohesion.[122]
Moreover, a number of languages are translated into a sentence structure and sentence length similar to a human translation.[122]
Furthermore, Google carried out a test that required native speakers of each language to rate the translation on a calibration between 0 and 6, and Google Translate scored 5.43 on boilerplate.[13]

When used as a dictionary to translate unmarried words, Google Translate is highly inaccurate because it must approximate betwixt polysemic words. Among the tiptop 100 words in the English language, which make up more than 50% of all written English language, the boilerplate word has more than than fifteen senses,[123]
which makes the odds against a right translation well-nigh 15 to one if each sense maps to a different word in the target language. Nearly common English words have at least 2 senses, which produces 50/50 odds in the likely case that the target language uses different words for those different senses. The odds are similar from other languages to English. Google Interpret makes statistical guesses that raise the likelihood of producing the most frequent sense of a word, with the upshot that an accurate translation volition be unobtainable in cases that do not match the bulk or plurality corpus occurrence. The accuracy of single-word predictions has not been measured for any linguistic communication. Considering well-nigh all not-English language language pairs pivot through English, the odds confronting obtaining accurate single-discussion translations from one non-English language to another can exist estimated by multiplying the number of senses in the source language with the number of senses each of those terms have in English. When Google Translate does not have a give-and-take in its vocabulary, it makes upward a event as part of its algorithm.[29]

Google Translate’southward inaccuracy can be illustrated past translating from one linguistic communication to another then back to the original language. This will often result in nonsensical constructions, rather than recovering the original text.
[
citation needed
]

Limitations

Google Translate, like other automatic translation tools, has its limitations. The service limits the number of paragraphs and the range of technical terms that can be translated, and while it can aid the reader understand the full general content of a foreign language text, it does not always evangelize accurate translations, and almost times it tends to repeat verbatim the aforementioned word it is expected to translate. Grammatically, for case, Google Interpret struggles to differentiate between
imperfect
and
perfect
aspects in Romance languages then habitual and continuous acts in the by often become single
historical
events. Although seemingly pedantic, this tin can oft lead to wrong results (to a native speaker of for example French and Spanish) which would take been avoided by a man translator. Knowledge of the
subjunctive mood
is virtually not-existent.[124]
[
unreliable source?
]

Moreover, the formal second person (
vous
) is often called, whatever the context or accepted usage.[125]
[
unreliable source?
]

Since its English language reference material contains only “you” forms, it has difficulty translating a language with “you all” or formal “yous” variations.

Due to differences between languages in investment, research, and the extent of digital resource, the accuracy of Google Translate varies greatly among languages.[xiii]
Some languages produce ameliorate results than others. Near languages from Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, tend to score poorly in relation to the scores of many well-financed European languages, Afrikaans and Chinese being the loftier-scoring exceptions from their continents.[10]
[126]
No languages indigenous to Commonwealth of australia are included within Google Translate. Higher scores for European tin can be partially attributed to the Europarl Corpus, a trove of documents from the European Parliament that have been professionally translated past the mandate of the Eu into every bit many every bit 21 languages. A 2010 analysis indicated that French to English translation is relatively accurate,[127]
and 2011 and 2012 analyses showed that Italian to English translation is relatively accurate equally well.[128]
[129]
However, if the source text is shorter, dominion-based machine translations ofttimes perform meliorate; this effect is particularly evident in Chinese to English translations. While edits of translations may be submitted, in Chinese specifically one cannot edit sentences equally a whole. Instead, one must edit sometimes arbitrary sets of characters, leading to incorrect edits.[127]
A adept example is Russian-to-English. Formerly one would use Google Translate to brand a draft and and then employ a lexicon and common sense to correct the numerous mistakes. Every bit of early 2018 Translate is sufficiently accurate to brand the Russian Wikipedia attainable to those who can read English language. The quality of Translate tin be checked by adding it as an extension to Chrome or Firefox and applying it to the left language links of any Wikipedia commodity. Information technology can be used equally a dictionary by typing in words. One can translate from a book by using a scanner and an OCR like Google Drive, only this takes about 5 minutes per page.

In its Written Words Translation part, there is a discussion limit on the amount of text that can exist translated at once.[20]
Therefore, long text should exist transferred to a document course and translated through its Document Translate role.[20]

Moreover, like all machine translation programs, Google Translate struggles with polysemy (the multiple meanings a discussion may have)[130]
[13]
and multiword expressions (terms that have meanings that cannot be understood or translated by analyzing the individual word units that compose them).[131]
A word in a strange language might have two different meanings in the translated language. This might pb to mistranslations.

Additionally, grammatical errors remain a major limitation to the accuracy of Google Translate.[132]

Open up-source licenses and components

Linguistic communication WordNet License
Albanian Albanet CC BY 3.0/GPL 3
Standard arabic Arabic WordNet CC Past-SA 3.0
Catalan Multilingual Central Repository CC By 3.0
Chinese Chinese Wordnet (Taiwan) Wordnet
Danish DanNet Wordnet
English language Princeton WordNet Wordnet
Finnish FinnWordNet Wordnet
French WOLF (WOrdnet Libre du Francais) CeCILL-C
Galician Multilingual Key Repository CC By 3.0
Haitian Creole MIT-Haiti Initiative CC Past 4.0
Hebrew Hebrew Wordnet Wordnet
Indonesian Wordnet Bahasa MIT
Italian MultiWordNet CC BY 3.0
Japanese Japanese Wordnet Wordnet
Malay Wordnet Bahasa MIT
Norwegian Norwegian Wordnet Wordnet
Persian Western farsi Wordnet Complimentary-to-use
Smooth plWordNet Wordnet
Portuguese OpenWN-PT CC BY-SA iii.0
Castilian Multilingual Central Repository CC By iii.0
Thai Thai Wordnet Wordnet

Irish gaelic language data from Foras na Gaeilge’s New English-Irish Dictionary (English database designed and developed for Foras na Gaeilge by Lexicography MasterClass Ltd.)

Welsh language data from Gweiadur past Gwerin.

Sure content is copyright Oxford University Printing USA. Some phrase translations come up from Wikitravel.[133]

Reviews

Before long afterward launching the translation service for the first time, Google won an international competition for English language–Standard arabic and English–Chinese machine translation.[134]

Translation mistakes and oddities

Since Google Translate used statistical matching to translate, translated text can often include patently nonsensical and obvious errors,[135]
often swapping mutual terms for similar but nonequivalent common terms in the other linguistic communication,[136]
as well every bit inverting sentence meaning.[137]
Novelty websites like Bad Translator and Translation Political party accept utilized the service to produce humorous text by translating back and forth betwixt multiple languages,[138]
similar to the children’south game telephone.[139]

See as well

  • Apertium
  • Boom-boom Fish (discontinued; redirects to the main Yahoo! site)
  • Comparison of auto translation applications
  • DeepL Translator
  • Google Dictionary
  • Google Translator Toolkit
  • Jollo (discontinued)
  • Listing of Google products
  • Microsoft Translator
  • Reverso
  • Smartcat
  • Voice communication Services
  • SYSTRAN
  • Word Lens (discontinued; merged into Google Translate app)
  • Yandex Translate

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  65. ^


    Uszkoreit, Jakob; Bayer, Ben (Oct 1, 2010). “Veni, Vidi, Verba Verti (Google Interpret Web log)” [I came, I saw, I turned the words].
    Google Translate Weblog
    (in English and Latin). Google Inc. Retrieved
    Dec eleven,
    2021
    .



  66. ^


    “Google picks SVOX for Translate and Dictionary services”. Zürich, Switzerland: SVOX. December 17, 2010. Archived from the original on December 26, 2010. Retrieved
    January twenty,
    2011
    .



  67. ^


    Venugopal, Ashish (June 21, 2011). “Google Interpret welcomes yous to the Indic web”.
    Google Interpret Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    June 21,
    2011
    .



  68. ^


    Brants, Thorsten (Feb 22, 2012). “Tutmonda helplingvo por ĉiuj homoj” [A global auxiliary language for all people].
    Google Translate Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    September 24,
    2015
    .



  69. ^


    Brants, Thorsten (September 13, 2012). “Translating Lao”.
    Google Translate Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    September 19,
    2012
    .



  70. ^


    Crum, Chris (September 13, 2012). “Google Adds Its 65th Language To Google Interpret With Lao”.
    WebProNews
    . Retrieved
    September 19,
    2012
    .



  71. ^


    Ong, Josh (Apr xix, 2013). “Google Translate Now Supports 66 Languages After Adding Khmer”.
    TNW News. Fiscal Times. Retrieved
    December 25,
    2021
    .



  72. ^


    Noda, Tam (May 10, 2013). “Google Translate goes Cebuano”.
    The Philippine Star
    . Retrieved
    December 25,
    2021
    .



  73. ^


    Liyanage, Vimukthi (Dec 12, 2014). “Google සිංහල පරිවර්ථන සේවය අද සිට ක්‍රියාත්මකයි !”
    Google siṁhala parivarthana sēvaya ada siṭa kriyātmakayi !
    [Google Sinhala translation service is active from today !].
    TechGuru.lk
    (in Sinhala). Retrieved
    August 1,
    2021
    .



  74. ^


    “Google can now translate text into Sindhi, Pashto and vice versa”.
    Dawn. Dawn Media Group. February xix, 2016. Retrieved
    March two,
    2016
    .



  75. ^


    “Google adds Sindhi to its interpret language options”.
    Dna India. Essel Group. February 18, 2016. Retrieved
    March ii,
    2016
    .



  76. ^


    “Google adds Sindhi to its interpret language options”.
    Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Asian News International. Feb eighteen, 2016. Archived from the original on Apr 13, 2021. Retrieved
    March 2,
    2016
    .



  77. ^


    Ahmed, Ali (February xviii, 2016). “Google Translate now includes Sindhi and Pashto”.
    Business Recorder. Archived from the original on Apr 26, 2016. Retrieved
    March two,
    2016
    .



  78. ^


    Shu, Catherine (February 17, 2016). “Google Translate Now Has More Than 100 Languages And Covers 99 Pct Of The Online Population”.
    TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
    December 25,
    2021
    .



  79. ^


    Sandilo, Tariq (February 21, 2016). “گوگل تي سنڌي ٻولي” [Sindhi language on Google].
    Sarwan.pk
    (in Sindhi). Retrieved
    March two,
    2016
    .



  80. ^


    Humphries, Matthew (February 27, 2020). “Google Translate Adds five New Languages”.
    PCMag. Ziff Davis. Retrieved
    December 25,
    2021
    .



  81. ^


    “Google Translate adds support for 24 new languages, at present supports over 130”. May eleven, 2022.


  82. ^


    “Google Translate – Contribute”.
    Google Translate. Google Inc. Retrieved
    December 14,
    2014
    .



  83. ^


    Chidley-Hill, John (February 21, 2021). “Online petition asks for Cree language to be added to Google Translate”. CTV News, Bell Media (possessor). The Canadian Press. Retrieved
    Feb 26,
    2021
    .



  84. ^


    Beattie, Samantha (February 23, 2021). “Google Interpret’s Exclusion Of Indigenous Languages A ‘Squandered’ Opportunity”.
    HuffPost Canada. BuzzFeed. Retrieved
    Feb 26,
    2021
    .


  85. ^


    a




    b




    Och, Franz Josef (September 12, 2005). “Statistical Auto Translation: Foundations and Recent Advances”
    (PDF).
    mt-annal.com. Phuket, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Association for Auto Translation. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on February 25, 2021. Retrieved
    December 19,
    2010
    .



  86. ^



    MT Superlative X: The Tenth Machine Translation Summit (proceedings). Phuket, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Association for Machine Translation. September 12–sixteen, 2005. ISBN9789747431261
    . Retrieved
    February 4,
    2022
    .



  87. ^


    “Franz Och, Ph.D., Expert in Car Learning and Auto Translation, Joins Man Longevity, Inc. every bit Chief Data Scientist” (Printing release). La Jolla, CA: Human Longevity, Inc. July 29, 2014. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved
    Jan 15,
    2015
    .



  88. ^

    French to Russian translation translates the untranslated non-French discussion “obvious” from pivot (intermediate) English to Russian


    le mot ‘obvious’ northward’est pas français



    “очевидными” слово не французское



  89. ^

    We pretend that this English language article is German when asking Google to translate information technology to French.
    Google, because it does non find the English words in the German dictionary, leaves those words unchanged as i can bear witness it with this spelllling misssstake. But it translates them to French nonetheless. That’s because Google translates German → English language → French and that the unchanged English words undergo the 2d translation. The word “
    außergewöhnlich
    ” however will be translated twice.

  90. ^


    a




    b




    Boitet, Christian; Blanchon, Hervé; Seligman, Mark; Bellynck, Valérie (January 31, 2011). “MT on and for the Web”
    (PDF).
    clips-imag.fr. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on March 29, 2017. Retrieved
    October 23,
    2011
    .


  91. ^


    a




    b




    P.Y. (October 25, 2010). “Wrong translation to Ukrainian language”.
    Google Inc. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved
    October 23,
    2011
    .



  92. ^

    Google Translation mixes up “
    tu
    ” and plural or polite “
    vous



    Je vous aime. Tu es ici.

    You are here. →

    Я люблю тебя. Вы здесь. Вы здесь.



  93. ^


    Adams, Tim (December 19, 2010). “Tin can Google break the computer language barrier?”.
    The Guardian
    . Retrieved
    May 28,
    2017
    .



  94. ^


    Tanner, Adam (March 28, 2007). “Google seeks earth of instant translations”.
    Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved
    December 17,
    2008
    .



  95. ^

    Google was an official sponsor of the annual Computational Linguistics in Nippon Briefing (“Gengoshorigakkai”) in 2007. Google too sent a delegate from its headquarters to the meeting of the members of the Computational Linguistic Guild of Japan in March 2005, promising funding to researchers who would be willing to share text data.

  96. ^


    “Inside Google Translate (old)”.
    Google Interpret. Google Inc. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved
    May 28,
    2013
    .



  97. ^


    Chitu, Alex (October 22, 2007). “Google Switches to Its Ain Translation System”.
    Unofficial Google Web log. Google Inc. Retrieved
    Feb fifteen,
    2011
    .



  98. ^


    Schwartz, Barry (October 23, 2007). “Google Interpret Drops Systran For Home Brewed Translation”.
    Search Engine State
    . Retrieved
    July 23,
    2010
    .



  99. ^


    Southern, Matt (July 28, 2014). “Google Seeks Customs Help To Improve Google Translate”.
    SEJ
    . Retrieved
    May 26,
    2017
    .



  100. ^


    Kelman, Sveta (July 25, 2014). “Translate Community: Assistance us improve Google Translate!”.
    Google Translate Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    May 26,
    2017
    .


  101. ^


    a




    b




    c




    “Help Us Amend the Google Translate Tool”.
    Google Translate. Google Inc. Retrieved
    November 20,
    2018
    .



  102. ^


    Lardinois, Frederic (July 25, 2014). “Google Wants To Meliorate Its Translations Through Crowdsourcing”.
    TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
    July 13,
    2017
    .



  103. ^


    Summers, Nick (July 25, 2014). “Google sets up a community site to help meliorate Google Translate”.
    TNW. Financial Times. Retrieved
    July 13,
    2017
    .



  104. ^


    Whitwam, Ryan (August 29, 2016). “New Google Crowdsource app asks you lot to assistance with translation and text transcription a few seconds at a time”.
    Android Police
    . Retrieved
    October 11,
    2016
    .



  105. ^


    Shankland, Stephen (Baronial 29, 2016). “New Crowdsource app lets you piece of work for Google for free”.
    CNET. Cherry-red Ventures; CBS Interactive (at the time of publication). Retrieved
    July 13,
    2017
    .



  106. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (April 1, 2019). “Myth v: Google Translate learns from its users – Qualitative Assay of Google Translate beyond 108 Languages”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 25,
    2019
    .



  107. ^


    Lange, William (February 7, 2017). “Statistical Vs Neural Machine Translation”. United Language Group. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved
    November 27,
    2018
    .


    Statistical Vs. Neural Auto Translation at the Wayback Automobile (archived March 28, 2019)
  108. ^


    a




    b




    Le, Quoc Five.; Schuster, Mike (September 27, 2016). “A Neural Network for Motorcar Translation, at Production Scale”.
    Google AI Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    October eleven,
    2016
    .


  109. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    Schuster, Mike; Johnson, Melvin; Thorat, Nikhil (November 22, 2016). “Zero-Shot Translation with Google’s Multilingual Neural Car Translation System”.
    Google AI Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved
    January xi,
    2017
    .



  110. ^


    Fewster, Gil (January 5, 2017). “The mind-blowing AI announcement from Google that y’all probably missed”.
    freeCodeCamp
    . Retrieved
    January 11,
    2017
    .



  111. ^


    Hochreiter, Sepp; Schmidhuber, Jürgen (November fifteen, 1997). “Long short-term memory”.
    Neural Computation.
    9
    (viii): 1735–1780. doi:10.1162/neco.1997.9.viii.1735. PMID 9377276. S2CID 1915014. Retrieved
    May fourteen,
    2017
    .



  112. ^




  113. ^


    Cade, Metz (September 27, 2016). “An Infusion of AI Makes Google Translate More Powerful Than Ever”.
    Wired
    . Retrieved
    May xiv,
    2017
    .



  114. ^


    McDonald, Chris (Jan vii, 2017). “Ok slow down”.
    Medium
    . Retrieved
    Jan eleven,
    2017
    .



  115. ^


    Davenport, Corbin (March half-dozen, 2017). “Google Translate now uses neural machine translation for some languages”.
    Android Law
    . Retrieved
    April 26,
    2017
    .



  116. ^


    Hager, Ryne (April 25, 2017). “Google adds Indonesian and eight new Indian languages to its neural auto translation”.
    Android Law
    . Retrieved
    April 26,
    2017
    .



  117. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (March thirty, 2019). “The 5 atmospheric condition for satisfactory approximations with Google Interpret – Conclusions: Existent Data, Fake Information & Google Translate”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    Dec 26,
    2019
    .



  118. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (March 30, 2019). “Empirical Evaluation of Google Interpret beyond 107 Languages”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 26,
    2019
    .



  119. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (March 30, 2019). “Non-English Pairs – Empirical Evaluation of Google Translate across 107 Languages”.
    Teach Y’all Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 26,
    2019
    .



  120. ^


    Aiken, Milam; Balan, Shilpa (April 2011). “An Analysis of Google Interpret Accuracy”.
    Translation Journal.
    16
    (2). Retrieved
    November 29,
    2018
    .


  121. ^


    a




    b




    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur; Cai, Zhiqiang (May 3, 2014). “Comparison of Google Translation with Human Translation”
    (PDF). FLAIRS Conference. S2CID 14905135. Archived from the original
    (PDF)
    on December 5, 2018. Retrieved
    November 29,
    2018
    .



  122. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (Apr one, 2019). “Polysemy in top 100 Oxford English Corpus words within Wiktionary”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 26,
    2019
    .



  123. ^


    Subjunctive Mood (@IfIwerejudgingU) (May 15, 2013). “Subjunctive Mood”.
    Twitter
    . Retrieved
    March 21,
    2015
    .



  124. ^


    “Google Interpret doesn’t really understand ‘tu’ and ‘vous’. Particularly “tu”“.
    Reddit. Dec 2, 2013. Retrieved
    March 21,
    2015
    .



  125. ^


    Freitas, Connor; Liu, Yudong (December 15, 2017). “Exploring the Differences between Man and Auto Translation”.
    Western Washington University: 5. Retrieved
    December v,
    2018
    .


  126. ^


    a




    b




    Shen, Ethan (June 2010).
    “Comparison of online machine translation tools”.
    TCWorld. Archived from the original on February 10, 2011. Retrieved
    July 23,
    2010
    .



  127. ^


    Pecoraro, Christopher (Baronial 17, 2011). “Microsoft Bing Translator and Google Interpret Compared”.
    chrispecoraro.com
    . Retrieved
    April 8,
    2012
    .



  128. ^


    Pecoraro, Christopher (Jan 30, 2012). “Microsoft Bing Translator and Google Translate compared (update)”.
    chrispecoraro.com
    . Retrieved
    April 8,
    2012
    .



  129. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (April ane, 2019). “Polysemy – words with multiple meanings – The Astounding Mathematics of Machine Translation”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 26,
    2019
    .



  130. ^


    Benjamin, Martin (April 1, 2019). “Party terms (or multiword expressions) – words that play together – The Astounding Mathematics of Machine Translation”.
    Teach You Backwards
    . Retrieved
    December 26,
    2019
    .



  131. ^


    Rahmannia, Mia; Triyono, Sulis (May 31, 2019). “A Study of Google Translate Translations: An Error Analysis of Indonesian-to-English Texts”. SSRN 3456744.

    International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation (IJLLT) ii(3):196-200, 2019. Retrieved Baronial 26, 2020

  132. ^


    “Open source components and licenses”.
    Google Interpret. Google Inc. Retrieved
    February 4,
    2022
    .



  133. ^


    Nielsen, Michael A. (Oct 3, 2011).
    Reinventing discovery: the new era of networked science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 125. ISBN978-0-691-14890-8
    . Retrieved
    Feb 24,
    2012
    .



  134. ^


    Gomes, Lee (July 22, 2010). “Google Interpret Tangles With Estimator Learning”.
    Forbes
    . Retrieved
    July 22,
    2010
    .



  135. ^


    Weinberg, Nathan (September 10, 2007). “Google Translates Ivan the Terrible as “Abraham Lincoln”“.
    Blog News Channel. Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved
    July 22,
    2010
    .



  136. ^


    Twisted Translations (February 10, 2015). “Google Translate Sings: “Bohemian Rhapsody” by Queen”.
    YouTube. Google Inc. Retrieved
    April 26,
    2016
    .



  137. ^


    Topolyanskaya, Alyona (January 28, 2010). “Google Lost in Translation”.
    The Moscow News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2010. Retrieved
    July 22,
    2010
    .



  138. ^


    Kincaid, Jason (August 7, 2009). “Translation Party: Borer Into Google Translate’s Untold Creative Genius”.
    TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved
    March 17,
    2017
    .


External links


  • Official website
  • Contribute



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Translate